Useful links

Working Group Web Pages and ICRM information

Metrological and other related Institutions

Norms

Different norms are linked to gamma-ray spectrometry calibration and measurement, established by IEC, ISO or IEEE in different technical committees (TC).
A summary of IEC standards prepared by WG9 of the TC 45, is given in this presentation.

Practical information

Basic bibliography

  • Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry, 2nd Edition
    Author: Gordon Gilmore
    April 2008
    Publisher: Wiley

    This is completed by the web site: http://www.gammaspectrometry.co.uk/index.htm; however this page is no more maintained since late 2014.
  • Radiation Detection and Measurements, 4th Edition
    Author: Glenn F. Knoll
    January 2010
    Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
  • Gamma-Ray and X-Ray Spectrometry with Semiconductor Detectors
    Authors: Klaus Debertin and Richard G. Helmer
    January 1989
    Publisher: North Holland, 1988
  • Nuclear decay database
    According to the 3NDWG meeting of 7 september 2005, the atomic and nuclear decay data contained within Monographie BIPM-5 are recommended to ICRM members and co-workers for their future decay data studies.

The work involved in evaluating nuclear data is on-going and the recommended values are updated on the LNHB website.

Gamma ray spectra

An on-line library of gamma ray spectra is maintained by Idaho National Laboratory – Gamma Spectrometry Center. « The INL’s Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogue is an attempt to compile spectra from various detector types and present these spectra with decay schemes and data tables based on the latest ENSDF data. It includes recently acquired Ge spectra and decay data as well as available spectra acquired for the original NaI(Tl) and Ge(Li) Catalogues. All information is documented by the spectra acquisition date and the ENSDF download date.
(http://www4vip.inl.gov/gammaray/catalogs/ge/catalog_ge.shtml)

Software

Hereafter is included a list of software that can be useful for gamma-ray spectrometrists. This is given only for information purposes and citation does not mean that the working group recommends or supports these software. Any hyperlinks are only given for convenience and do not imply any support from the working group.

Efficiency transfer and self-attenuation corrections
  • ANGLE: www.dlabac.com/angle
  • EFFTRAN is an efficiency transfer code with the following characteristics:
    • Limited to HPGe detectors and cylindrical samples (including point sources)
    • Axial symmetry of the setup assumed, except for a possible shift (misalignment) of the detector crystal
    • Crystal rounding (bulletization) and an absorber can be modelled
    • The standard can be an extended source, not only a point one
    • User interface is an Excel workbook (with some VBA code)
    • Numerical integration is realised with the Monte Carlo method, statistical uncertainty of the results is 1%
    • Execution time is a few seconds
    • XCOM is used for generation of material data (attenuation coefficients)
    Free software (including source files), available from http://ol.ijs.si/~vidmar/ as a ZIP file.
  • ETNA is a software for computing efficiency transfer and coincidence summing corrections for gamma-ray spectrometry. The attached file (NT_Doc_etna_eng.pdf) presents the software facilities and includes a user’s manual.
    A short practical presentation is attached here.
    The software has been developed at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and is available upon request.
    Contact: Marie-Christine Lépy at LNHB
  • GESPECOR (Germanium Spectroscopy Correction Factors)
    Contact: Octavian Sima (Bucharest University)
Coincidence summing corrections
  • CCCC also called 4C (pronounced « Fore-see »), is a Coincidence Correction Calculation Code with the following characteristics:
    • Limited to HPGe detectors and cylindrical samples (including point sources)
    • Axial symmetry of the setup assumed, except for a possible shift (misalignment) of the detector crystal
    • Crystal rounding (bulletization) and an absorber can be modelled
    • User interface is an Excel workbook (with some VBA code)
    • Uses the KORDATEN nuclear decay data file (ca. 200 nuclides), updated according to the DDEP recommended values
    • Two average K X-rays are considered
    • L X-rays not implemented
    • Coincidences of all orders are included
    • Annihilation photons accounted for
    • Spatial variation of the efficiency treated through the LS-curve approach
    • Uses finite resolution of 1 keV in the spectra
    • Execution time is a couple of seconds per nuclide
    • No experimental efficiencies required
    Free software (including source files), available from http://ol.ijs.si/~vidmar/ as a ZIP file.
  • GESPECOR (Germanium Spectroscopy Correction Factors)
    Contact: Octavian Sima (Bucharest University)
  • ETNA is a software for computing efficiency transfer and coincidence summing corrections for gamma-ray spectrometry. The attached file (NT_Doc_etna_eng.pdf) presents the software facilities and includes a user’s manual.
    A short practical presentation is attached here.
    The software has been developed at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and is available upon request.
    Contact: Marie-Christine Lépy at LNHB
Tool for spectrum transfer
  • SPECON is a converting utility between various spectrum files having various binary formats. It can automatically identify 11 binary formats and three ASCII formats. They can be completely converted to each other including experimental information if possible. This software is also useful as a spectrum viewer.
    http://specon-2000.software.informer.com
Monte Carlo simulation of spectra and efficiency
  • Software package MCC-MT (Monte Carlo Calculation Multi Thread) is intended for 3D-modelling of physical experiments and calculation of radiation detectors response functions using Monte Carlo simulation method.
    https://www.tals.eu/mcc-mt
Preparation of PENELOPE geometry files
  • PUFI (PENELOPE User-Friendly Interface) is a convenient interface designed to facilitate the preparation of PENELOPE geometry files for application to gamma-ray spectrometry. The software considers typical cases with a cylindrical geometry including detector, volume source and shielding.
    The software has been developed at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and can be downloaded here.
Peak fitting
  • COLEGRAM purpose is to accurately process experimental spectra to separate overlapping components and derive individual areas for each of them, especially in the 100 keV photon energy region including both X-ray and gamma-ray peaks. The processing of different types of spectra is achieved by fitting mathematical functions to experimental data sets. Several types of functions can be used, depending on the kind of spectrum; most of them are specific to a particular peak shape: alpha, gamma, X, or beta. Functions for overall background shapes such as exponential or polynomial, are also available. COLEGRAM uses the least squares fitting method with the Marquardt-Levenberg algorithm and is based on a visual management under the user’s control.
    The attached file (NT_Colegram.pdf) presents the software facilities and its practical use.
    The software has been developed at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel and is available upon request.
    Contact: Marie-Christine Lépy at LNHB
Attenuation coefficients
  • XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database
    M.J. Berger, J.H. Hubbell, S.M. Seltzer, J. Chang, J.S. Coursey, R. Sukumar, and D.S. Zucker
    A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z = 100), at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.
    http://physics.nist.gov/PhysRefData/Xcom/Text/XCOM.html
Uncertainties
  • Uncertainties in gamma-ray spectrometry, M.-C. Lépy, A. Pearce and O. Sima, Metrologia 52 (2015) S123-S145

Bibliography by topics

The attached files include a non-exhaustive list of published articles in relation with the main topics.

Coincidence summing
  • The attached file (Coincidence_summing_Biblio.pdf) gathers around 50 references sorted in the publication dates. They present either theoretical or practical methods, or experimental validations.
    This is only a list without any judgment about the quality of the quoted articles.
Monte Carlo methods applied to efficiency computation
  • The attached file (Monte_Carlo_Efficiency_Biblio.pdf) gathers around 20 references sorted in the publication dates.
    This is only a raw list without any judgment about the quality of the quoted articles.

Training material

The hereafter attached PDF files are presentations that have been used for the purpose of training.

Efficiency
Self-attenuation